Paediatric Hip Disorders
Pediatric hip disorders encompass various conditions that can affect the hip joints in infants and children. The disorder can range from developmental abnormalities to structural or functional issues related to the hip joint. Here are some common pediatric hip disorders:
1. Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (Perthes Disease)
The rare disorder known as Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, or Perthes disease, causes the femoral head, the ball-shaped head of the thighbone, to momentarily lose its blood supply. This causes the thighbone’s head to collapse, causing irritation and inflammation in the surrounding area.
2. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)
In newborns and early children, the “ball and socket” joint of the hip does not develop normally, and this disease is known as developmental dysplasia of the hip. Hip dysplasia or congenital dislocation of the hip are other names for it.
3. Avascular Necrosis of Hip
Avascular necrosis, sometimes referred to as osteonecrosis of the hip, is a condition in which the femoral head dies due to vascular disruption. An insidious development of discomfort is associated with AVN of the hip. Males are more likely than females to experience the multifactorial cause.
4. Congenital Hip Disorders
Congenital hip dislocation (CHD) happens when a kid is born with an unbalanced hip. It results from aberrant hip joint creation in the early phases of fetal development. An alternative term for this ailment is “hip developmental dysplasia.” The more your child grows, the greater this instability gets.
5. Fracture Neck of Femur
The femoral neck is the portion of the femur that connects the ball-shaped head of the bone to the shaft. Fracture neck of the femur is relatively uncommon in children and account for only 1% of fractures in children. It usually happens due to high-energy trauma with possible life-threatening–associated injuries. Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head (AVN) is the most common and serious complication associated with it and it occurs in around 24% of the cases.
6. Benign Bone Tumors Hip
Benign bone tumors in the hip refer to non-cancerous growth or the abnormalities that develop within the bones of the hip joint or its surrounding structures. These tumors are not malignant and typically grow slowly. They can arise from various types of cells found in bones or adjacent tissues.
7. Osteotomy Around Hip
A hip osteotomy is typically performed on children who have hip dysplasia or dislocation, with an enlarged acetabulum and a small femoral head. A portion of the femur, pelvis, or, in rare cases, both, must be cut, realigned, and fixed into an appropriate, functional position during the procedure. The patient must be 18 months of age or older.
8. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)
The condition is known as “slipped capital femoral epiphysis” affects teenagers and is characterized by disruption to the growth plate and movement of the femoral head relative to the rest of the femur. While the remainder of the femur moves, the head remains in the hip joint’s cup.
9. Developmental Coxa Vara
Developmental coxa vara is a perinatal illness condition of the proximal femur that involves the inferior region of the capital femoral physis and surrounding metaphysis. A reduced neck-shaft angle typically arises during growth, and degenerative hip joint disease may follow. This disease process behaves differently from other types of coxa vara due to the unique osteocartilaginous femoral neck deformity.
10. Transient Synovitis
The most frequent cause of limping in youngsters is transient synovitis, often known as irritable hip. The cause is inflammation and swelling of the hip joint lining. Most occurrences of irritable hips are caused by a viral illness that your child has recently recovered from. The illness might occasionally develop following an accident or fall. Children between the ages of 3 and 10 are the most commonly affected by irritable hips.